Is there something easy when deploying and configuring the database layer?
Aspects of Data integrity and reliable/safe operations add up to complexity, which only increases when tradicional SQL, high availability, fault tolerance, scalability and high levels of concurrency, are required. It is a sensitive layer, no doubt. Consequently, if there is something easy there, it would be to screw everything up.
Do not fear, go test, screw up and learn. I mean, just not in production. How? By leveraging Infra automation and testing using Ansible, Molecule and containers. They will allow you to quickly create a disposable local environment in which you can deploy your automated configuration and do all the testing you need as well as verification.
If this is of interest to you, keep reading for an actual example you could try in your machine. It is a Postgres cluster to be configured by Ansible. You can deploy it to local containers using Molecule, a framework for developing and testing Ansible roles. You just need to be acquainted with Ansible inventories, roles and playbooks.
This reading will be structured as follows: a) Ansible role for the cluster; b) prerequisites to run it; c) screwing things up; d) testing and verifying;
Ok. Back to the example, pg_cluster is an Ansible role to install, configure and bootstrap a Postgres cluster. You can install it, run it and test it, in a local environment using Molecule, checking that some prerequisites are installed first.
Let me just mention real quick what Postgres and Pgpool2 are, in case they need some introduction 😜. Postgres is a object-relational database system, considered one of the best. Pgpool2 is a middleware in front of Postgres for connection pooling, load balancing and watchdog. It can handle backend failover, failback and recovery. Both are open source.
This role installs a cluster with 3 nodes -bear with me, here comes a textual description-. Each node runs Pgpool2 and Postgres. Pgpool2 and Postgres have two roles each. For Postgres, those roles are: primary and standby. For Pgpool2, those roles are: active and standby. Pgpool and Postgres roles are independent. However, the first node starts with both, active (pgpool2) and primary(postgres). It has a Floating IP. The rest of nodes have standby role (pgpool and postgres).
The following diagram is a graphical and probably better description of the last paragraph:
FLOATING IP +-----------+ WATCHDOG +--------| PGPOOL2 |--------+ | ------------- nic0 | | | | | | | POSTGRES | | | | master | | | +-----------+ | | nic1| | +-----------+ | +-----------+ | PGPOOL2 | | | PGPOOL2 | |-----------| | ------------- | | | | | | POSTGRES | | | POSTGRES | | standby |-----------------| stanby | +-----------+ REPLICATION +-----------+
DISCLAIMER: pg_cluster has been used only in testing so far
In order to test this role, make sure the following prerequisites are met. Docker should be installed. You also need pip to install Molecule and some other required python packages. For example, to install the prerequisites in Fedora you can do:
## Docker sudo dnf install -y docker ## Pip sudo dnf install -y python3-pip ## Ansible and role requirements pip install --user "ansible>=2.8" netaddr ## Molecule and its requirements pip install --user "molecule>=3" docker ansible-lint yamllint flake8
Once they are installed, download pg_cluster and you are ready to go:
git clone https://github.com/jobcespedes/pg_cluster cd pg_cluster working_dir=$(pwd)
$working_dir will be our working directory
$working_dir as your current path, molecule would be one of its directories. Inside molecule dir you will find the default test scenario. There you can find molecule configuration, playbooks for each sequence and the scenario’s inventory.
├── defaults ├── handlers ├── meta ├── molecule │ └── default │ ├── converge.yml │ ├── group_vars │ │ └── all.yml │ ├── hosts │ ├── molecule.yml │ ├── prepare.yml │ ├── side_effect.yml │ └── verify.yml ├── tasks ├── templates └── test
If you want to modify the inventory and its variables, you can edit the ‘hosts’ file, add ‘group_vars’ files or add a ‘host_vars’ dir and put some files in it. For example:
├── molecule │ └── default │ ├── host_vars │ │ └── pg-master.yml │ ├── group_vars │ │ └── all.yml │ ├── hosts
Screwing things up
With prerequisites met, you are ready to configure the cluster using containers. To create the local environment, run (be patient, it might take some time 😄):
That´s it. Molecule configured the cluster in your machine. The subcommand converge creates and prepares the default test scenario and leaves it up, running. So, you are able to modify it afterwards. The command
molecule destroy removes it, in case you have no need for it anymore.
While it is running, you can modify the Ansible role, molecule playbooks, molecule inventory, list cluster containers and log in to any of them, among other things:
# list cluster containers molecule list # log in to master node molecule login -h pg-master
I will not try to tell you what to do here. You can do anything you want. But you might be interested in trying to remove one postgres backend and do an online recovery for it. You will need to log in to a container and run some commands there. First, run
molecule login -h pg-master and then, inside the container:
# 1. Dettachment ## check nodes status and notice 'status' column of all nodes: 'up' psql -h localhost -U postgres -c "show pool_nodes;" ## dettach first standby node with pcp command pcp_detach_node -h localhost -w -p 9898 -U postgres 1 # 2. Recovery ## check nodes status and notice 'status' column of node 1: 'down' psql -h localhost -U postgres -c "show pool_nodes;" ## online recovery of node 1 pcp_recovery_node -h localhost -w -p 9898 -U postgres 1 # 3. Check recovery ## check nodes status and notice 'status' column of all nodes: 'up' psql -h localhost -U postgres -c "show pool_nodes;"
Test and verify
Molecule has several test sequences. Creating the scenario and preparing it are two of them. In addition, Molecule gives you the option to run a specific one, a set of them or a full test with all sequences.
Two sequences inside pg_cluster are side_effect and verify. Side_effect sequence has some tasks related to what we already try: failover and online recovery. Verify sequence has some assertions about the cluster: checking all backends are up, checking pcp commands, number of nodes, roles, among others. Check each respective playbook for the details of what is being tested and verified.
To verify after converge, run
molecule verify. After you are done testing, remember to run
Ansible and Molecule help you test and verify an automated deployment. It could be on your machine, CI/CD or any any other environment. You have the option to do a full test sequence or specific sets. It enables incremental development of your automated configuration. The best part for me, it gives me a safe environment to debug, test and learn. I just need to run
molecule converge and there I have it.
Molecule has more to it than what has been covered here. Check out its docs to learn more. If you have read this far, I hope you have been able to simple test a complex scenario and safely screwed things up. 👋
The following resources are useful for further learning basic and advanced Ansible topics: